People have widely assumed that streams fed by substantial amounts of groundwater are more resistant to climate change than those fed mostly by snowmelt or rain. Because groundwater is typically colder than surface water in summer, the groundwater flowing into streams can buffer the overall stream temperature from climate warming. Previous studies have shown that groundwater temperature is tied to the depth that it travels. It is also more susceptible to drying, which can reduce, or even disconnect, the shallow groundwater flow from the stream. Other studies have also shown that changes to the land, such as from wildfires, snow pack changes and deforestation, influence shallow groundwater temperature more than deep groundwater temperature.